There are a variety of ways to install Windows. Ultimately access to the files on the installation CD-ROM in necessary. If the installation is not started from a bootable CD-ROM or boot diskettes, then access to the setup command I386\WINNT is necessary.
This is easy on computer with a bootable CD-ROM. For computers that cannot boot to the CD-ROM boot diskettes are necessary. If you are upgrading from a previous version of Windows, the old Windows drivers will give you access to the CD-ROM. If the CD-ROM or its files are available on a network share, then you need a network boot diskette that will connect you to the network share.
The installation requires the following information.
Server licensing is determined at the time that you purchase Windows. During the installation you must correctly specify whether Per Server licensing or Per User licensing was purchased.
Per Server Licensing
Per Server licensing has a limit to the number of active users supported on the server at one time. Any number of computers can connect to the network, but only a specified number can be connected to the server. In the following, although 4 computers are connected to the network, only 2 licenses are used to connect the 2 active users.
Per User Licensing
In Per User licensing, an organization pays for a specified number of users independent of how many servers they connect to. In the following diagram, with one user license, a user can connect to any number of servers.
All Windows Servers are initially installed as member servers. Member servers can be promoted to domain controllers by running DCPROMO. DCPROMO will automatically install the DNS server software if it is not already installed. DCPROMO can also be used to demote a domain controller to a regular member server.
ÆInstall DNSÆÅPromote to DCÆ
Domain controllers can be installed to
Domain Functional Level
Domain controllers run in mixed mode immediately after installation. Mixed mode provides compatibility with NT domain controllers. Unfortunately, with compatibility we loose some capabilities, like the ability to nest groups of the same type. NT domains require that one of the domain controllers be a PDC Primary Domain Controller which is the only domain controller that is allowed to accept updates. Active Directory has multi-master replication and no longer needs a PDC, but to maintain compatibility with NT domain controllers, the first AD domain controller automatically fills the role of the PDC. Once an AD domain controller is in a domain, no NT domain controller is allowed to be promoted to a PDC. The AD PDC replicates any domain changes to the NT domain controllers which have the role of BDCs, Backup Domain Controllers.
Mixed mode server
Upgrading a PDC to the Active Directory will migrate the existing security principals into three containers.
An alternative to upgrading is to migrate security principals with ADMT Active Directory Migration Tool.
Migrate users & groupsÆ
Joining a Domain
To successfully join a domain, a computer object must be created for the computer that is joining the domain. If the computer object already exists, only local administrative rights are necessary to join the domain. If the computer object does not exist, AD administrative rights are required. To join a domain use the following Computer Properties dialogs.
QFE Quick Fix Engineering patches fix specific problems and are distributed between service pack releases.
NT service packs must be reapplied after new OS components are installed. Service packs for Windows 2000 and later and completely installed so that no reinstallation is not required.
Service packs can be slipstreamed with the original distribution files.
If you have a test domain controller available, use DCPROMO to promote and/or demote the server. Additionally, use the System Properties dialog to join and disjoin a domain.